SUSE Security Update: Security update for pacemaker _____ Announcement ID: SUSE-SU-2020:1072-1 Rating: important References: #1131353 #1131356 Cross-References: CVE-2018-16877 CVE-2018-16878 Affected Products: SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability 12-SP2 _____ An update that fixes two vulnerabilities is now available. Start and enable the service. This guide was created as an overview of the Linux Operating System, geared toward new users as an exploration tour and getting started guide, with exercises at the end of each chapter. Now, before installing grub, I formatted my efi partition. [[email protected] ~]# cat /etc/redhat-release CentOS Linux release 8. 19-1~dotdeb. We take preconfigured SUSE Enterprise Linux high availability cluster to demonstrate here. Building from Source. Pacemaker, Heartbeat, Corosync, WTF? Pacemaker is the thing that starts and stops services And of course pre-built packages for all these come with most of the popular Linux distributions, including Fedora, openSUSE, SLES >= 10, RHEL >= 6, Debian, and Ubuntu. nodes) and driven by prescribed. 2 and Pacemaker version 2. service systemctl start pcsd. I cannot find the rpm in any of the centos repo at clusterlabs. Explore what steps are needed to configure a two-cluster node. In the previous post, we have explained about the DRBD (Distributed Replicated Block Device) to understand What is DRBD (Distributed Replicated Block Device), How the DRBD Works, DRBD Operations, DRBD Replications modes, DRBD Architecture and DRBD Administration commands. * HA requirements on RHEL 7. Redhat, Ubuntu, Debian, CentOS and many other flavors adopted pacemaker cluster manager. Starting pcs daemon. DRBD can replicate the block device to each node and Pacemaker can start the cluster resources are required. Pacemaker 與 Corosync 是 Linux 中現今較常用的高可靠性叢集系統組合。Pacemaker 自身提供了很多常用的應用管理功能,不過若要使用 Pacemaker 來管理自己實作的服務,或是一些特別的東西時,就必須要自己實作管理資源。. To stop a service: sudo service ufw start. The Corosync Cluster Engine is an open source project licensed under the new BSD License derived from the OpenAIS project. > So I decided to try and use gfs2, even because of the excellent > "Pacemaker-1. 12 Floating IP Address 10. Let me give small definitions about Corosync and Pacemaker. It allows you to build high availability applications with the use of Open Source. 15 Root Privileges What we will do: Map the Host File Install Epel Repository and Nginx Install and Configure Pacemaker, Corosync, and Pcsd Create and Configure the Cluster Disable STONITH and Ignore the Quorum Policy Add. I don't want to spend time to study RHCS of RHEL 5 if Pacemaker/Corosync is the future. This suits for any Linux Operating System flavour which uses PACEMAKER as a cluster manager like Redhat, Ubuntu. CentOS 7; Pacemaker - HA Cluster (1) Install Pacemaker proceed to next step for installing Scientific Linux 6. Start Pacemaker; service pacemaker start chkconfig --add pacemaker chkconfig pacemaker on Install crmsh For Cluster Configuration. For this we are using CentOS6. This example is based on the environment like follows. Oracle Cluster with DRBD, Pacemaker, and Corosync In this post, we are going to build an Oracle active-passive cluster using pacemaker, corosync, and DRBD. Register each node with RedHat Subscription Manager. Authenticate as the hacluster user. OS Installation. I haven't really deploy centOS 8 cluster using pacemaker. the packages are pinned to 100 by using ButAutomaticUpgrades: yes in the Release files. PostgreSQL 9. Otherwise, to teach the machine where to find the CentOS packages, run:. NFS shares are used for setting up the home directories and sharing the same content across multiple. ) Some ideas for switch vsftpd on my second node on he is not available on my first node. 1 ldap1 testserver01 10. Installing Pacemaker configuration tools Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 High Availability Add-On Reference 2. Pacemaker ships as part of the Red Hat High Availability Add-on. The following commands install the Red Hat High Availability Add-On software packages that Pacemaker requires in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 and prevent corosync from starting without cman. Installing Pacemaker Debian 6. Corosync and Pacemaker are now installed but they need to be configured before they will do anything useful. In this clip we show how to integrate drbd with pacemaker on Ubuntu 16. 2 software packages are included in Oracle Linux 8 Update 1. 1-Clusters_from_Scratch" install and configuration guide. 04 servers for the demonstration. Pacemaker is available pre-packaged from many major Linux distributions, including Debian, Fedora, openSUSE, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, SUSE Linux Enterprise Server, and Ubuntu LTS. Using OpenVPN with Pacemaker When using OpenVPN with Pacemaker and systemd a command like pcs resource create openvpn- foo systemd:[email protected] foo op monitor interval=60s --force is needed to create a new resource for OpenVPN, where the connection is defined in /etc/openvpn/client/ foo. In case that nodes suddenly cannot communicate then one of the nodes will kill the other node to ensure that both nodes are not active at the same time. RPM resource pacemaker. * Benefits of Highly Available applications. Although containers provide a lot of flexibility, managing the state is not a problem with straight-forward solution on a distributed system. Background In this lab we will create a NFS service hosted by three VMs: master1 , master2 and master3. Path /usr/include/pacemaker/crm_config. Install PaceMaker and Corosync. I think this component is important and need to be integrated to pacemaker sybsystem of Redhat Linux 7. Back up any configuration files that have been modified since installation before beginning this upgrade. After installing SQL Server on Linux and achieving endpoint configurations, it’s time to create the availability group. This is how a Debian administrator can use this command to restart the system: $. Until about 2007, it was part of the Linux-HA project, then was split out to be its own project. Although MySQL is available from the default repositories in CentOS 8, this guide will walk through the process of setting up a LEMP stack with MariaDB as the database management system. It's a big fault, I don't think as an Open source project that should happen. Pacemaker is a high availability Cluster Resource Manager (CRM) that can be used to manage resources, and ensure that they remain available in the event of a node failure. After you have Oracle Linux Corosync/Pacemaker instances up and running along with CLI, you will need to identify the Virtual Network Interface Cards (VNICs) Oracle Cloud IDs (OCID) that will be used to automate the failover process. 1 ldap1 testserver01 10. Of course, you don't have to Set Up Nginx High Availability Cluster using Pacemaker on CentOS 7, if you use one of our Nginx Hosting Solutions, in which case you can simply ask our expert Linux admins to help you with this. acl: Add support for Access Control Lists. Oracle Cluster with DRBD, Pacemaker, and Corosync In this post, we are going to build an Oracle active-passive cluster using pacemaker, corosync, and DRBD. When I stop pacemaker on my first node, all resources are available on my second node. Installing Pacemaker Debian 6. ● This allows for the quorum disk arbitration node to fail over before CMAN times out. The Red Hat Customer Portal delivers the knowledge, expertise, and guidance available through your Red Hat subscription. Configure Corosync. 4, there is still some legacy. Go to all of your nodes and check whether the new disk is visible or not. Active 5 years, 10 months ago. Corosync and Pacemaker Linux Cluster of course supports both Active/Passive and Active/Active modes on multi-nodes! Linux Cluster (source: clusterlabs. Additional Information. Install the authkey created in step 1 in the /etc/pacemaker/ folder. To implement high availability, run an instance of the database on each controller node and use Galera Cluster to provide replication between them. org/pacemaker. Test and generate the Corosync configuration. Pacemaker is an open source cluster manager app. I followed our standard installation guide, created also shared replicated DRBD storage, but whenever I tried to mount the ext4 storage DRBD detached the disks on both node sides with I/O errors. The DRBD and Pacemaker RPM packages are supplied on the IBM MQ media. The canonical cluster resource manager in high-availability Linux is Pacemaker. Pacemaker is an advanced, scalable High-Availability cluster resource manager for Corosync, CMAN and/or Linux-HA. Pacemaker is a sophisticated, feature-rich, and widely deployed cluster resource manager for the Linux platform. I'm trying to configure pacemaker cluster with two hosts, I'm using two centos 7(CentOS Linux release 7. Pacemaker is known as 'Cluster Resource Manager', It provides maximum availability of the cluster resources by doing fail over of resources between the cluster nodes. Step 3 - Install Pacemaker, Corosync, and Crmsh. If you want to setup a Highly Available Linux cluster, but for some reason do not want to use an "enterprise" solution like Red Hat Cluster, you might consider using Pacemaker, Corosync and DRBD [1], [2], [3]. Dedicated Local disk : /dev/sdb and preferably same size on each nodes. The installation of pacemaker cluster is very simple. First thing was to install a few packages (on both nodes): # apt-get install pacemaker corosync rsync screen vim-nox mutt mailx curl wget sysstat ntp Then I made sure I had a basic firewall set up that allowed the two nodes to talk to each other and exposed ports 80, 443 and 22 to the public (based on default Red Hat/CentOS firewall rules). 100 ldap2 testserver02 Installation We will install pacemaker, it should install corosync as an dependency, if not install it. Linux technical support - [email protected] On both servers, install Corosync and Pacemaker using apt-get: sudo apt-get install pacemaker Note that Corosync is installed as a dependency of the Pacemaker package. The Pacemaker is a high-availability cluster resource manager it will run on all the hosts which we suppose to use in the cluster to make sure our services up and running to reduce the downtime. nodes) and driven by prescribed. The relation between kernel DLM (Distributed Lock Manager) and pacemaker stack has been illustrated here. It is used to replicate the storage devices from one node to the other node over a network. corosync: A cluster messaging layer. He works as Devops Engineer with Taggle systems, an IOT automatic water metering company, Sydney. PostgreSQL 9. To configure High Availability Linux Cluster with Pacemaker in CentOS. Also, lists commands to enable sar to collect monitoring data in background. It is used to replicate the storage devices from one node to the other node over a network. 2 software packages are included in Oracle Linux 8 Update 1. Although containers provide a lot of flexibility, managing the state is not a problem with straight-forward solution on a distributed system. DRBD Pacemaker HA Cluster In this blog we step you through the very basics in setting up a DRBD Pacemaker HA Cluster on Ubuntu 16. 04 LTS servers. If evething is fine, just go ahead now, and install cluster and drbd packages: yum install -y pacemaker corosync drbd83 kmod-drbd83 heartbeat. Somewhat annoyingly, Linux HA stuff has changed yet again in CentOS 6. Installing and Configuring Corosync and Pacemaker. I don't want to spend time to study RHCS of RHEL 5 if Pacemaker/Corosync is the future. local node2. 18-2ubuntu1. Additional Information. To continue this series on Step-by-step Installation and Configuration of SQL Server 2017 Availability Groups on a Linux Cluster, we will look at configuring Pacemaker on Linux to provide high availability for the SQL Server 2017 Always On Availability Group. Install Pacemaker. I will show you in this tutorial how to install your first cluster Corosync and the Linux Cluster Manager Pacemaker. SUSE cluster log file is /var/log/messages by default First three column of log file says date and time of occurrence. Apache Tomcat Installation and configuration Steps on Linux. So why Pacemaker? It’s a fairly popular community-driven tool. This example is based on the environment like follows. LDAP is a solution to access centrally stored information over network. Install DRBD and Pacemaker on each node. We take preconfigured SUSE Enterprise Linux high availability cluster to demonstrate here. Configure basic cluster environment on here. Installation PaceMaker on both servers: yum install pacemaker pcs psmisc policycoreutils-python (yum install corosync pcs pacemaker) Enable and start services on both servers: systemctl enable pcsd systemctl enable corosync systemctl enable pacemaker systemctl start pcsd. sudo yum install pacemaker pcs. 10 Corosync Version: 2. If you like this article, consider sponsoring me by trying out a Digital Ocean VPS. 5 apt-get -t squeeze-backports install corosync pacemaker. Assuming you have the correct package repositories configured, install the two packages with the following commands: zypper install heartbeat cluster-glue. 1: 1865523 [bionic] fence_scsi not working properly with Pacemaker 1. The following commands install the Red Hat High Availability Add-On software packages that Pacemaker requires in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 and prevent corosync from starting without cman. It simplifies the configuration, management and troubleshooting of Pacemaker-based clusters, by providing a powerful and intuitive set of features. $ cat /etc/centos-release CentOS Linux release 7. Operating System. Pacemaker is a sophisticated, feature-rich, and widely deployed cluster resource manager for the Linux platform. If you install a copy of IBM MQ server for Linux using Electronic Software Download, obtained from Passport Advantage®, you need to uncompress the tar. linux openstack kubernetes gluster ansible docker ceph systemctl python openshift log centos sed registry kolla kibana keepalived elasticsearch deploy cloud-init auth HA zabbix vsphere vmware venv tools swift ssl ssh scm ruby rsyslog rhel rbac rabbitmq prometheus postgres policy pgpool2 patrole pacemaker ntp nfs net mq monitoring mongo mbr lvm. The ocf:pacemaker:ClusterMon resource can monitor the cluster status and trigger alerts on each cluster event. local node1 192. Use the following commands to import GPG key and install ELRepo repository on both nodes:. SUSE Security Update: Security update for pacemaker _____ Announcement ID: SUSE-SU-2020:1072-1 Rating: important References: #1131353 #1131356 Cross-References: CVE-2018-16877 CVE-2018-16878 Affected Products: SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability 12-SP2 _____ An update that fixes two vulnerabilities is now available. sudo yum install pacemaker pcs fence-agents-all resource-agents Ubuntu. Add the DRBD resource to our previously configured Pacemaker/Corosync cluster In my previous post, I created a cluster with Apache to serve webpages in a high available setup. /etc/hosts 10. This will download all the prerequisites so that pacemaker can be installed on our servers. How to Install cluster pacemaker on linux CentOS 7 for SQL Server High Availability video explains below Validating Nodes IP address Disable firewall and SELINUX (for Installation Only) -- Not Recommended for Prod Installing pacemaker Configuring Cluster User, i. Linux環境でクラスターを組んだことがなかったので、勉強がてらCentOS 7 + Pacemaker + CorosyncでMariaDBをクラスター化してみた。 実施内容がそこそこ多いので、今回含めて、全3回で記載することにする。. The combination creates a High Availability Cluster which replicates data and automatically Fail-overs during outages. 100 ldap2 testserver02 Installation We will install pacemaker, it should install corosync as an dependency, if not install it. In this case, the shared drive will be two physical drives -- one on each server -- replicated by the Distributed Replicated Block Device (DRBD) software package. Now we are going to install the Corosync and Pacemaker packages on both servers using the following command. Make sure you have successfully set up DNS resolution 2. The Corosync Cluster Engine is an open source project licensed under the new BSD License derived from the OpenAIS project. 04 64 bit OS. x so keep that in mind with any compatibility concerns as will be mentioned later in this. Version-Release number of selected component (if applicable): Pacemaker 1. pacemaker_selinux - Security Enhanced Linux Policy for the pacemaker processes Description. Unlike the tightly coupled Windows Server/ SQL Server stack, Pacemaker cluster creation as well as availability group (AG) configuration on Linux can be done before or after installation of SQL Server. ) Some ideas for switch vsftpd on my second node on he is not available on my first node. yum install pacemaker cman ccs resource-agents pcs Make sure we have our hosts in /etc/hosts on both nodes: # backend 192. systemctl enable pacemaker systemctl enable corosync systemctl enable pcsd. ( vsftpd started, vip available, drbd0 mounted. Documentation for getting started with the HA cluster stack on Debian Jessie and beyond, using Pacemaker/Corosync 2. In the Linux world, a popular approach to build highly available clusters is with a set of software tools that include pacemaker (as resource manager) and corosync (as the group communication system), plus other libraries on which they depend and some configuration utilities. LifeKeeper as a commercial solution. The agent doesn't require it, but, the PaceMaker framework does. Today Pacemaker is a very simple streamlined bundle that includes the Pacemker clustering, fencing agents, resource agents and the heartbeat (corrosync). Background In this lab we will create a NFS service hosted by three VMs: master1 , master2 and master3. Set pacemaker-remote to launch on startup (systemclt enable pacemaker_remote). Prerequisites. Additionally on both hosts we should have and additional unused disk. Here are some of the topics of this post: * Introduction to High Availability (HA) and Clustering. Installing Pacemaker Debian 6. Ensure that you are booting the USB stick from UEFI if you like to install Ubuntu in UEFI boot mode. Installation Channels Vendor Packages. pacemaker help you create highly available services by automatically recover/failover to multiple servers. The cluster resource agent that is installed in Part 2 - mssql-server-ha - is the interface between Pacemaker and SQL Server. com/errata/RHBA-2018:0165The following updated fil. 2 and Pacemaker version 2. Using virtualization allows easier server deployment and, starting, enhance application availability. 18-2ubuntu1. In this blog we step you through the very basics in setting up a DRBD Pacemaker HA Cluster on Ubuntu 16. Next integrates with Pacemaker, a popular Linux clustering technology. 10 web02 10. It is used to replicate the storage devices from one node to the other node over a network. This example is based on the environment like follows. A Linux package is nothing but a collection of files and information about those files. Register each node with RedHat Subscription Manager. Configure the firewall on each node. 12リリース記事に書かれているものにアレンジを加えたものです。以下のURLがその内容ですので、あわせてご覧いただければと思います。. LDAP stands for Lightweight Directory Access Protocol. I haven't really deploy centOS 8 cluster using pacemaker. openSUSE includes a suite of high availability clustering software, notably Corosync, Pacemaker, DRBD, OCFS2 and various related management tools. 1-Clusters_from_Scratch" install and configuration guide. 10(node1) and 192. 10, which provides a number of bug fixes and enhancements over the previous version : * Pacemaker no longer assumes unknown cman nodes are. and then we can start configuring Corosync, building on the PRIMARY node the key to be shared between the cluster nodes (using havaged package). The agent doesn't require it, but, the PaceMaker framework does. The integration and configuration of resources for the Pacemaker portion of an AG or FCI deployment is done after the cluster is configured. Read more at HowtoForge. In this blog post I will setup a completer cluster with a virtual IP address (192. I am running a clean CentOS 6. It facilitates support of geographically distributed clustering in Pacemaker. Pacemaker is a High Availability cluster Software for Linux like Operating System. DNS resolution. Posted February 22, 2017 by Allan Hirt in Always On, availability groups, Linux, Pacemaker, SQL Server v. It happens because Pacemaker didn’t start. # Pacemaker high availability cluster method. Pacemaker install failed due to dependency of package resource-agents. To install Pacemaker, simply open a terminal and issue the below command. The clustering layer is based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) HA add-on built on top of Pacemaker. What is DRBD? DRBD (Distributed Replicated Block Device) is a software package for Linux-based systems. nodes) and driven by prescribed. Run below commands on each server to install Pacemaker, Corosync, and Pcsd. In this article, we will see that how to configure two node Redhat cluster using pacemaker & corosync on REHL 7. # aptitude install pacemaker The following packages have unmet dependencies: corosync-pve : Conflicts: corosync but 1. Specifically it manages clusters that use one or more of these components: Pacemaker, Corosync, Heartbeat, DRBD, KVM, XEN and LVM. To run the crtmqpkg command to run on Linux, you must install the pax command and rpmbuild, which is located in the rpm-build package. The Corosync Cluster Engine is an open source project licensed under the new BSD License derived from the OpenAIS project. d]# yum install -y pacemaker pcs psmisc policycoreutils-python. Until about 2007, it was part of the Linux-HA project, then was split out to be its own project. The cluster will be using the hostname to communicate with each other. After the installation has been completed, enable all services to launch automatically at system boot using the systemctl commands below. The drbd is a block device which is designed to build high availability clusters. This will download all the prerequisites so that pacemaker can be installed on our servers. You can leave a response , or trackback from your own site. Install and Configure OpenAIS + Pacemaker 4. 180-8) pacemaker (1. Configure basic cluster environment on here. Additional Information. SUSE cluster log file is /var/log/messages by default First three column of log file says date and time of occurrence. All these applications are available in Uubuntu repository. It facilitates support of geographically distributed clustering in Pacemaker. I want to creat an OpenShift cluster with 2 masters and 3 nodes. To stop a service: sudo service ufw start. In this case we are also using RackSpace Cloud Servers and associated OpenStack features, so we will use the nova client to create the networks, servers, and storage before logging on to finish the configuration. 10, which provides a number of bug fixes and enhancements over the previous version : * Pacemaker no longer assumes unknown cman nodes are. For detailed information about configuring Pacemaker, see Configuring and Managing Cluster Resources (GUI) in the SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Administration Guide. The cluster nodes, to be able to communicate within each other, they need a key to be able to authenticate the packages sent between them by corosync. Versions at the time of writing this entry are: MySQL: 5. Prerequisites: Install Pacemaker and Corosync on CMS1, MGMT1, CMS2, and MGMT2, using the correct versions for your Linux distribution: Note: The versions referred to for setting up automatic failover in this document are Pacemaker 1. This guide was created as an overview of the Linux Operating System, geared toward new users as an exploration tour and getting started guide, with exercises at the end of each chapter. Installation Channels Vendor Packages. Pacemaker is a High Availability cluster Software for Linux like Operating System. This software is used for clustering and high availability. Starting pcs daemon. 1-Clusters_from_Scratch" install and configuration guide. This centrally stored information is organized in a directory that follows X. Install Pacemaker, Corosync, and crmsh with the apt command below. 4, there is still some legacy. Red Hat Product Security has rated this update as having a security impact of Important. On both nodes, run: sudo yum install -y pacemaker pcs. It will run scripts at initialization, when machines go up or down, when related resources fail and can be configured to periodically check resource health. For this setup, I will use Pacemaker (part of RedHat High Availability Add-on and available on RHEL, CentOS, Oracle Linux, …). We should install next packet on our servers, because pacemaker uses libhbclient. Pacemaker is capable of using two cluster messaging layers: Heartbeat or Corosync. 1をインストールしてみました。 作業手順そのものはLinux-HA JapanのPacemaker-1. LifeKeeper as a commercial solution. pacemaker corosync nginx cluster # Pacemaker installation [[email protected]]# yum -y install corosync pcs pacemaker nginx. So make sure these are installed on both the nodes in the cluster along with pcs. service { # Load the Pacemaker Cluster Resource Manager name: pacemaker ver: 1 } Start Corosync; service corosync start chkconfig corosync on. Configure SQL Server AlwaysOn Availability Groups on Linux - Part 1 Install and configure a cluster resource manager - Pacemaker SQL Server 2017 introduces two different architectures for availability groups. Unlike the tightly coupled Windows Server/ SQL Server stack, Pacemaker cluster creation as well as availability group (AG) configuration on Linux can be done before or after installation of SQL Server. Playbooks used for the Pacemaker to native HA upgrade will re-run cluster configuration steps, therefore any settings that are not stored in your inventory file will be overwritten. 2; fence-agents 4. Next, you will need to download the VMware Player installation, which is free for personal non-commercial use. Install Linux High-Availability Cluster tool "Pacemaker". Configure File System Resource 6. RHEL 7 vs RHEL 6. Learn how to install sar utility in SUSE Linux. Install Pacemaker. Testing Environment. So I downloaded and installed perl-5. Prerequisites: This course requires a good understanding of Linux services and networking. I don't want to spend time to study RHCS of RHEL 5 if Pacemaker/Corosync is the future. Here we are going to use DRBD to replicate the data between NFS nodes and Heartbeat to provide high availability to the cluster. The integration and configuration of resources for the Pacemaker portion of an AG or FCI deployment is done after the cluster is configured. In this article, we will see that how to configure two node Redhat cluster using pacemaker & corosync on REHL 7. Back up any configuration files that have been modified since installation before beginning this upgrade. It is for both Beginners and Experts. Security-Enhanced Linux secures the pacemaker processes via flexible mandatory access control. These are our steps for configuring DRBD: Create partitions on both nodes. The pacemaker-remote package contains the Pacemaker Remote daemon which is capable of extending pacemaker functionality to remote nodes not running the full corosync/cluster stack. If a service should fail to operate correctly, or a server should fail, the affected services will be quickly restarted or migrated to another server. If you are already running CentOS or Scientific Linux, you can skip this step. Pacemaker is open source high availability resource manager software used on computer clusters since 2004. Step 3 – Install Pacemaker, Corosync, and Crmsh. Axigen is a fast, reliable and secure Linux, Windows, and Solaris mail server software, offering integrated SMTP, POP3, IMAP, and webmail servers, enabling the System Administrator to have full control of traffic through the email server. Run below commands on each server to install Pacemaker, Corosync, and Pcsd. The drbd is a block device which is designed to build high availability clusters. Note Enabling SLE 11 HAE is beyond the scope of this manual. Let me give small definitions about Corosync and Pacemaker. Building HA cluster with Pacemaker, Corosync and DRBD. Install package pacemaker-mgmt on debian wheezy. On node 1: [[email protected] ~]# yum install pcs pacemaker corosync fence-agents-virsh fence-virt \ pacemaker-remote fence-agents-all lvm2-cluster resource-agents \ psmisc policycoreutils-python gfs2-utils On node 2: [[email protected] ~]# yum install pcs pacemaker corosync fence-agents-virsh \ fence-virt pacemaker-remote fence-agents-all lvm2-cluster. Thanks to all who helped give hints. Pacemaker Install. It facilitates support of geographically distributed clustering in Pacemaker. In this guide I will explain how I install pacemaker and corosync on ubuntu and configure haproxy cluster on two servers. Since you most likely will also want to install Pacemaker (beyond the scope of this manual), do so by issuing the following commands as well: aptitude install cluster-agents pacemaker. Debian 6 comes with pacemaker 1. …Pacemaker will start and stop. NTP and timezones yum install. Associate RedHat high availability with the subscription. The Linux reboot command will restart the system then and there, without waiting for the user to safely close and save any open files and processes. Hence this whitepaper applicable to any pacemaker based Linux cluster. Linux: Tips n Tricks Pages. With Corosync/Pacemaker there is no easy way to simply run a script on failover. DRBD + Pacemaker from repo. If you like this article, consider sponsoring me by trying out a Digital Ocean VPS. SSH into the above VM instance and install Pacemaker and Heartbeat:. The SQL Server instance is active on either one node or the other. SBC HA cluster is based on crmsh, a cluster management shell for the Pacemaker High Availability stack. Install packages. both nodes had to have an identical set of webpages in order to server the exact same content regardless of which node was the active one. HAGuideImprovements/TOC Generally HA can be configured and run on any hardware that is supported by Linux kernel. The SQL Server instance is active on either one node or the other. RHEL7 HA NFS Cluster using PCSD, Pacemaker, Corosync and DRBD - Part 1 (intro, cluster setup & configure VirtualIP resource) I set up a RHEL7 HA NFS cluster about 3 years prior and due to the urgency of the request, there was a lack of planning involved and some obstacles were met with what I thought to be the most straight forward solution at. To install: yum install -y pacemaker corosync RHEL. For detailed information about configuring Pacemaker, see Configuring and Managing Cluster Resources (GUI) in the SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Administration Guide. Install a Pacemaker Cluster. # yum install pcs pacemaker resource-agents fence-agents-all If you are running firewalld, you should add the high-availability service on each of the nodes, so that the service components are. But wait, at this stage we didn’t install any clustering part right? And in fact, we don’t have to do this. service Authenticating the cluster nodes: node1# pcs cluster auth 192. Cluster member nodes must: be two (2) PCs or Raspberry Pis with the same Debian or Raspbian (9/Stretch) Linux version and updates. Install Corosync and Pacemaker. Installation PaceMaker on both servers: yum install pacemaker pcs psmisc policycoreutils-python (yum install corosync pcs pacemaker) Enable and start services on both servers: systemctl enable pcsd systemctl enable corosync systemctl enable pacemaker systemctl start pcsd. We use aptitude to install pacemaker and some other necessary packages we will need: [ALL] # aptitude install pacemaker corosync fence-agents Configure Cluster Membership and Messaging. Pacemaker packages are installed with the high availability pattern on the SLES HAE 11 SP2 install source. On both nodes, run: sudo yum install -y pacemaker pcs. In my nodes. If you are running firewalld, you should add the high-availability service on each of the nodes, so that the service components are able to communicate across the network. By the way this bug is present in Centos 7 as well. NTP and timezones yum install. By cluster components that means Corosync, CMAN, pacemaker and whatever resources your cluster are managing, in my case it was DRBD and mysql. But following output looks pacemaker pkgs are ported. 12リリース記事に書かれているものにアレンジを加えたものです。以下のURLがその内容ですので、あわせてご覧いただければと思います。. Fencing for this cluster should be handled using the fencing daemon running on classroom. 9) Last piece of advice I can give you, and this might be the most valuable, if you get stuck you can find a chat on irc called #linux-cluster. This entry was posted on Monday, May 3rd, 2010 at 8:52 and is filed under Heartbeat, Linux-HA, Pacemaker, Ubuntu. The clustering layer is based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) HA add-on built on top of Pacemaker. 2 All of them successful authenticated. Cleaning ‘Failed actions’ message in Pacemaker/Corosync cluster setup Posted on September 20, 2011 May 10, 2019 Author Oleksii Tykhonov Posted in linux Leave a Reply Sometimes when using Pacemaker / Corosync -based cluster you can see warning message in crm_mon output:. How do is install the windows boot manager now?. The following parameters are used. Unlike the tightly coupled Windows Server/ SQL Server stack, Pacemaker cluster creation as well as availability group (AG) configuration on Linux can be done before or after installation of SQL Server. This are the steps to compile install and configure pacemaker-mgmtd on Centos6. I noticed that I'm actually running x86_64 version of RHEL 5 and as those servers won't be connected to Internet I didn't configured Redhat repositories. Axigen is a fast, reliable and secure Linux, Windows, and Solaris mail server software, offering integrated SMTP, POP3, IMAP, and webmail servers, enabling the System Administrator to have full control of traffic through the email server. Until about 2007, it was part of the Linux-HA project, then was split out to be its own project. Associate RedHat high availability with the subscription. Building from Source. Otherwise, to teach the machine where to find the CentOS packages, run:. Pacemaker is a cluster resource manager that is typically deployed with the Corosync cluster messaging layer when building Linux clusters. Specifically it manages clusters that use one or more of these components: Pacemaker, Corosync, Heartbeat, DRBD, KVM, XEN and LVM. Pacemaker is an open source high availability resource manager software. SL-7-Install-Dual-Layer-DVD. 04 64 bit OS. RHEL7 HA NFS Cluster using PCSD, Pacemaker, Corosync and DRBD - Part 1 (intro, cluster setup & configure VirtualIP resource) I set up a RHEL7 HA NFS cluster about 3 years prior and due to the urgency of the request, there was a lack of planning involved and some obstacles were met with what I thought to be the most straight forward solution at. 2 and Pacemaker version 2. # apt-get install pacemaker. Install pacemaker product from Redhat 7 repository; 2. This guide will walk you through the steps to create a two-node shared disk cluster for SQL Server on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7. Install 'nfs-utils' package on both nfs servers [[email protected] ~]# yum install nfs-utils -y [[email protected] ~]# yum install nfs-utils -y. 18-2ubuntu1. Use the same password on both nodes: sudo passwd hacluster Enable and start pcsd service. PRIMARY# corosync-keygen Corosync Cluster Engine Authentication key generator. This can make up the foundation of many clusters as, at the DRBD level, we can make the filesystem highly available, We are using two Ubuntu 16. First of all we install the needed packages. Install Pacemaker and Corosync on CMS1, MGMT1, CMS2, and MGMT2, using the correct versions for your Linux distribution: Note: The versions referred to for setting up automatic failover in this document are Pacemaker 1. Configure Corosync. Install pacemaker product from Redhat 7 repository; 2. 1 ldap1 testserver01 10. Corosync is the only supported Pacemaker messaging layer in SUSE Linux Enterprise 11. Pre-requisites The setup below is specific to Amazon’s Linux distribution (RHEL/CentOS derived) – but should be applicable to other distributions with little modification. The following commands install the Red Hat High Availability Add-On software packages that Pacemaker requires in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 and prevent corosync from starting without cman. Removing fencing devices. Step: 2 Go to Download folder & double click on WhatsApp installation file as shown in below image. You'll be introduced to the principles of Linux-based HA and cluster management and the key tools currently in use in real-world environments - including Linux Virtual Server (LVS), HAProxy, Pacemaker, DRBD, OCFS2, and GFS2. This mechanism does exactly what the name suggests. 動作確認環境 [仮想化ホスト環境] Windows7 SP1 Vagrant 1. Systems administration, maintenance and monitoring various day-to-day operations in Linux Servers. If you want to install something from backports run: apt-get -t buster-backports install "package" of course you can use aptitude as well: aptitude -t buster-backports install. /etc/hosts 10. echo "[email protected]@assWD" | passwd hacluster --stdin. Let me give small definitions about Corosync and Pacemaker. This will download all the prerequisites so that pacemaker can be installed on our servers. Systems administration, maintenance and monitoring various day-to-day operations in Linux Servers. The cluster name will be geeklab. Amazon Linux のリポジトリには pacemaker が存在しない( corosync とかはあるのに…) ビルド後に pacemaker のインストールを行う ハマったというかこれどうしようか問題. You'll learn how to intelligently spread workloads among diverse geographic. The first step is to install the database that sits at the heart of the cluster. PostgreSQL 9. We have a custom application which doesn't have daemon / Resource Agent. HAGuideImprovements/TOC Generally HA can be configured and run on any hardware that is supported by Linux kernel. Pacemaker is an advanced, scalable High-Availability cluster resource manager for Corosync, CMAN and/or Linux-HA. Pacemaker/Corosync [both] Install Pacemaker and Corosync. Let me give small definitions about Corosync and Pacemaker. I will explain it in a different post. CRM Shell is a software to manage pacemaker resources. Thanks to all who helped give hints. It is an optional package. Shutdown & rebooting the machines periodically for Hands on experience in Linux server. The cluster will be using the hostname to communicate with each other. Associate RedHat high availability with the subscription. Start and enable the service. The clustering layer is based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) HA add-on built on top of Pacemaker. SUSE cluster log file is /var/log/messages by default First three column of log file says date and time of occurrence. 04 servers for the demonstration. The smbclient package is not pre-installed on most Linux distros so you will need to install it with your distribution package manager. This will download all the prerequisites so that pacemaker can be installed on our servers. You can think it as a networked RAID device. Sep 19 04:08:26 node2[1]: pacemaker. 62 respectively. be configured in sequence, i. Linux: Tips n Tricks Pages. I haven't really deploy centOS 8 cluster using pacemaker. Install some basic software: (Do on both servers) 1 yum install -y vim git make automake gcc gcc-c++ glibc gd gd-devel glib-devel glibc-headers wget curl tar nc libcurl-devel openssl-devel zlib-devel zlib patch readline readline-devel libffi-devel curl-devel zip rsync ruby rubygems ruby-devel htop mlocate python-dateutil redhat-rpm-config ntp. To Install LEMP (Nginx, MySQL, PHP) On Centos for WordPress; How to Install WordPress with Apache Web Server on CentOS; How to add entry Grub 2 on CentOS 7 for Dual Boot Loader; How to Monitor Linux Host on Nagios using NRPE; How to install Nagios On CentOS 7; How to create virtualization with KVM on CentOS 6. I will explain it in a different post. It is used for producing high availability without any downtime. I'm setting up a 2 node cluster for postgres. Pacemaker is an advanced, scalable High-Availability cluster resource manager for Corosync, CMAN and/or Linux-HA. Ubuntu appears to have switched to Corosync 2 for it's LTS releases. Also included with pacemaker-cloud is a shell (pcloudsh), which orchestrates all the components, as well as providing status updates for the monitored services. Specifically it manages clusters that use one or more of these components: Pacemaker, Corosync, Heartbeat, DRBD, KVM, XEN and LVM. Apache Tomcat is fully compatible with Redhat, CentOS, Ubuntu & other major Linux distributions. pacemaker corosync nginx cluster # Pacemaker installation [[email protected]]# yum -y install corosync pcs pacemaker nginx. 動作確認環境 [仮想化ホスト環境] Windows7 SP1 Vagrant 1. A Linux package is nothing but a collection of files and information about those files. I cannot find the rpm in any of the centos repo at clusterlabs. This article explains how to set up (and monitor) an Active/Passive PostgreSQL Cluster, using Pacemaker with Corosync and DRBD. Posted February 22, 2017 by Allan Hirt in Always On, availability groups, Linux, Pacemaker, SQL Server v. To install support for RDQM (replicated data queue managers), you run two scripts that perform the following tasks: Install IBM MQ on each node. This guide was created as an overview of the Linux Operating System, geared toward new users as an exploration tour and getting started guide, with exercises at the end of each chapter. This might happen because the corresponding cluster node was removed from the cluster permanently, or a different fencing mechanism is used to fence the node. d]# yum install -y pacemaker pcs psmisc policycoreutils-python. Git Clone URL: https://aur. Pacemaker and in general Linux clustering have been around for a very long time. yum install -y pacemaker corosync RHEL Pacemaker has been available for Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) since version 6. WhatsApp -> Menu -> WhatsApp Web. Corosync is the only supported Pacemaker messaging layer in SUSE Linux Enterprise 11. SUSE cluster log file is /var/log/messages by default First three column of log file says date and time of occurrence. On all Nodes, Install Pacemaker and configure some settings. Prerequisites. Also included with pacemaker-cloud is a shell (pcloudsh), which orchestrates all the components, as well as providing status updates for the monitored services. Pacemaker is an advanced, scalable High-Availability cluster resource manager. 12リリース記事に書かれているものにアレンジを加えたものです。以下のURLがその内容ですので、あわせてご覧いただければと思います。. Hosts or DNS resolvers; NTP Must be installed and configured on all nodes; Simple example of host entries. 18-2ubuntu1. Install Pacemaker, Corosync, and crmsh with the apt command below. On both servers: systemctl enable pcsd. So why Pacemaker? It's a fairly popular community-driven tool. Sep 19 04:08:26 node2[1]: pacemaker. pacemaker: A cluster resource management framework which you will use to automati-cally start, stop, monitor, and migrate resources. Step 3 – Install Pacemaker, Corosync, and Crmsh. Install Pacemaker, Corosync, and crmsh with the apt command below. In this guide i am going to setup high availability linux cluster with Pacemaker and Corosync. Distributed Replicated Block Device (DRBD). Since there is no centralized directory service for authentication, this user account is created on all nodes and used to impersonate the security context of the administrator managing the Linux cluster. Pacemaker is a spin-off of Heartbeat, the high-availability stack formerly driven primarily by Novell (which then owned SUSE) and IBM. Install and Configure Squirrelmail in Linux November 4, 2011 Updated November 25, 2019 By Bobbin Zachariah LINUX HOWTO , MAIL SERVER Squirrelmail is a standards based webmail package which allows the users to access their mails through web browser instead of any mail clients. MySQL with DRBD/Pacemaker/Corosync on Linux 1. Using virtualization allows easier server deployment and, starting, enhance application availability. Step-by-Step Tutorial to configure KVM HA Cluster using Pacemaker GUI (WEB UI) and CLI tool in RHEL and CentOS 8 Linux. You can leave a response , or trackback from your own site. This article explains how to set up (and monitor) an Active/Passive PostgreSQL Cluster, using Pacemaker with Corosync and DRBD. Step 3: Installing Corosync and Pacemaker. and then we can start configuring Corosync, building on the PRIMARY node the key to be shared between the cluster nodes (using havaged package). It's a nice tool but its installation require a license key that is not easy to get to test the product. Installation and Setup Prerequisites. The following commands install the Red Hat High Availability Add-On software packages that Pacemaker requires in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 and prevent corosync from starting without cman. Pacemaker is known as 'Cluster Resource Manager', It provides maximum availability of the cluster resources by doing fail over of resources between the cluster nodes. Linux & System Admin Projects for $250 - $750. On all Nodes, Install Pacemaker and configure some settings. Pacemaker and in general Linux clustering have been around for a very long time. Ensure that you are booting the USB stick from UEFI if you like to install Ubuntu in UEFI boot mode. Red Hat Enterprise Linux version 6 used a very complex HA solution incorporating several other tools, and while this has been simplified since the release of RHEL 6. This module can manage a pacemaker cluster and nodes from Ansible using the pacemaker cli. Install media suitable network install. Posted February 22, 2017 by Allan Hirt in Always On, availability groups, Linux, Pacemaker, SQL Server v. Pacemaker is a cluster resource manager, that is, a logic responsible for a life-cycle of deployed software — indirectly perhaps even whole systems or their interconnections — under its control within a set of computers (a. pacemaker and pcs on Linux example, Fencing STONITH is an acronym for Shoot-The-Other-Node-In-The-Head and it protects your data from being corrupted by rogue nodes or concurrent access. Home; # yum install -y pacemaker pcs psmisc policycoreutils-python Redirecting to /bin/systemctl stop pacemaker. systemctl start pcsd systemctl enable pcsd. sudo yum install pacemaker pcs. Your doctor can tell you whether your pacemaker or its wires need to be replaced. Two NIC’s per node, one (eth0) connects to the network (LAN), and the other one (eth1) for DRBD to replicate data between the nodes. /etc/hosts 10. For more information about installing the SQL Agent on Linux, refer to this link: Install SQL Server Agent on Linux. NODE1 will become our primary node, making NODE2 our secondary node. In attachment part of the SAP Note you can find the required RHEL Configuration guides for SAP HANA. Setting up Corosync and Pacemaker. pcs cluster auth db1 db2 -u hacluster -p [email protected]@assWD. Debian 6 comes with pacemaker 1. I was trying to install Corosync and Cman using yum install -y pacemaker cman pcs ccs resource-agents This works fine on CentOS 6. Pacemaker is capable of using two cluster messaging layers: Heartbeat or Corosync. Resources managed by Pacemaker will be moved in the event of a node failure and can be configured to run in tandem with other resources. 62 respectively. The syntax to access a Samba share is as follows:. Operating System. Install packages. pacemaker and pcs on Linux example, Fencing. Scientific Linux 7 Live media. At some point, it might be necessary to remove a fencing device from the cluster. Pacemaker is an advanced, scalable High-Availability cluster resource manager for Corosync, CMAN and/or Linux-HA. The combination creates a High Availability Cluster which replicates data and automatically Fail-overs during outages. Pacemaker is a spin-off of Heartbeat, the high-availability stack formerly driven primarily by Novell (which then owned SUSE) and IBM. Hosts or DNS resolvers; NTP Must be installed and configured on all nodes; Simple example of host entries. Pacemaker+Linux-HA provides highly available services on clusters from one to more than 16 nodes with no single point of failure. Ubuntu appears to have switched to Corosync 2 for it's LTS releases. Pacemaker es un software opensource, con soporte de RedHat, para la configuración de servicios en cluster o con alta disponibilidad. Red Hat doesn't support SBD on cloud platforms. Resources managed by Pacemaker will be moved in the event of a node failure and can be configured to run in tandem with other resources. The DRBD and Pacemaker RPM packages are supplied on the IBM MQ media. Installation and configuration of the Linux. Associate RedHat high availability with the subscription. 18-2ubuntu1. Install and Configure Linux High-Availability Cluster tool "Pacemaker". Since the pcs tool from RHEL does not exist on Ubuntu, we well create the corosync. Install media suitable for use on Dual Layer DVD media. The easiest way to try it out on RHEL is to install it from the Scientific Linux or CentOS repositories. For installation openshift_master_cluster_hostname # must resolve to the configured VIP. 10 web02 10. Our Lab Setup: Hostname : node1 and node2 Operating System : CentOS 7. If you like this article, consider sponsoring me by trying out a Digital Ocean VPS. Redhat, Ubuntu, Debian, CentOS and many other flavors adopted pacemaker cluster manager. # aptitude install pacemaker The following packages have unmet dependencies: corosync-pve : Conflicts: corosync but 1. Set pacemaker-remote to launch on startup (systemclt enable pacemaker_remote). What is DRBD? DRBD (Distributed Replicated Block Device) is a software package for Linux-based systems. Use the following commands to import GPG key and install ELRepo repository on both nodes:. Display fencing devices. The cluster resource agent that is installed in Part 2 - mssql-server-ha - is the interface between Pacemaker and SQL Server. I don't want to spend time to study RHCS of RHEL 5 if Pacemaker/Corosync is the future. The Pacemaker cluster resource manager is a collection of technologies working together to maintain data integrity and application availability in the event of failures. It simplifies the configuration, management and troubleshooting of Pacemaker-based clusters, by providing a powerful and intuitive set of features. The installation will create a 'hacluster' system user. Oracle Linux customers with Premier Support subscriptions can receive support for XFS on Oracle Linux 6 at no additional charge. h /usr/include/pacemaker/crm/cib. High-Availability Cluster with Failover (Active / Passive) through Linux pacemaker is used widely in cluster for small scale production machines. This are the steps to compile install and configure pacemaker-mgmtd on Centos6. This guide describes how to create a pair of redundant file servers using DRBD for replication, RedHat GFS2 (Global File System), and Pacemaker for cluster management. Installing Pacemaker. This Video is Part -1 of Configuring Cluster Services on Redhat Enterprise Linux -7 using the new pcsd daemons in this video we are preparing our environment. Pacemaker is a cluster resource manager that is typically deployed with the Corosync cluster messaging layer when building Linux clusters. The cluster nodes, to be able to communicate within each other, they need a key to be able to authenticate the packages sent between them by corosync. Next integrates with Pacemaker, a popular Linux clustering technology. Installing Pacemaker configuration tools Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 | Red Hat Customer Portal. Install Xen. This is the second part of my "Linux Cluster" posts: Linux Cluster Part 1 - Install Corosync and Pacemaker on CentOS 6 - Learn how to install Corosync and Pacemaker on CentOS 6; Linux Cluster Part 2 - Adding and Deleting Cluster Resources - Learn how to add and delete Linux Cluster Resources and how to use CRM Shell Linux Cluster Part 3 - Manage Cluster Nodes and Resources. Sep 19 04:08:26 node2[1]: Stopping Pacemaker High Availability Cluster Manager… Sep 19 04:08:26 node2[1]: Starting Pacemaker High Availability Cluster Manager… Sep 19 04:08:26 node2[1]: pacemaker. rpm on my rhel server and tried again the pacemaker installation. But wait, at this stage we didn’t install any clustering part right? And in fact, we don’t have to do this. Linux kernel won't work on the power savings if there is no market for it but people will won't use Linux in laptop or tablet like Surface because battery life is bad. Configure SQL Server AlwaysOn Availability Groups on Linux - Part 1 Install and configure a cluster resource manager - Pacemaker SQL Server 2017 introduces two different architectures for availability groups. 04 servers for the demonstration. com as needed:. It basically bootstraps everything. Linux: Tips n Tricks Pages. To install support for RDQM (replicated data queue managers), you run two scripts that perform the following tasks: Install IBM MQ on each node. local node1 192. It is an optional package. You must start the necessary cluster services before kicking off the cluster configuration. Pacemaker is a cluster resource manager, that is, a logic responsible for a life-cycle of deployed software — indirectly perhaps even whole systems or their interconnections — under its control within a set of computers (a. yum install -y pacemaker pcs. To install Pacemaker, simply open a terminal and issue the below command. Setup pacemaker CentOS cluster with drbd TAGS: linux pacemaker drbd centos. 20(node2) Dedicated network device for Data replication : 172. > So I decided to try and use gfs2, even because of the excellent > "Pacemaker-1. RHEL7 HA NFS Cluster using PCSD, Pacemaker, Corosync and DRBD - Part 1 (intro, cluster setup & configure VirtualIP resource) I set up a RHEL7 HA NFS cluster about 3 years prior and due to the urgency of the request, there was a lack of planning involved and some obstacles were met with what I thought to be the most straight forward solution at. h /usr/include/pacemaker/crm/cib. We take preconfigured SUSE Enterprise Linux high availability cluster to demonstrate here. But following output looks pacemaker pkgs are ported. The cluster nodes, to be able to communicate within each other, they need a key to be able to authenticate the packages sent between them by corosync. In this case, the shared drive will be two physical drives -- one on each server -- replicated by the Distributed Replicated Block Device (DRBD) software package. The Corosync version 3. # enable [HighAvailability] repo and install (it's disabled by default). com network. To stop a service: sudo service ufw restart. This software is used for clustering and high availability. At its core, Pacemaker is a distributed finite state machine capable of co-ordinating the startup and recovery of inter-related services across a set of machines. 1 Linux User and Group number scheme 14 iv SAP NetWeaver High Availability Cluster 7. node1: Centos 6. local node1 192. Install Corosync, Pacemaker and CRM Shell. This article explains how to set up (and monitor) an Active/Passive PostgreSQL Cluster, using Pacemaker with Corosync and DRBD. Run this command on both servers: $ sudo apt-get install pacemaker. nodes) and driven by prescribed. This might happen because the corresponding cluster node was removed from the cluster permanently, or a different fencing mechanism is used to fence the node. Setting up Corosync and Pacemaker. ) Some ideas for switch vsftpd on my second node on he is not available on my first node. The Corosync Cluster Engine is a Group Communication System with additional features for implementing high availability within applications. It is used for producing high availability without any downtime. install 2) Open the file debian/rules and goto the line beginning with cfg:= Replace the option --with-lcrso-dir=$(LCRSO) with --without-ais 3) in the file debian/rules search the lines install -d. But with SUSE Linux you can not find sar pre-installed.